You may have noticed the Cat5 cable being used in your office’s computer networking. There may be newer cables released but why is it that Cat5 is still used?
The Cat5 is an Ethernet cable used in local area networking. It is a standard given by EIA/TIA which defines the cable’s parameters in both speed and length. While newer cables, such as the Cat6, provide more speed, the Cat5 is considerable cheaper. Compared to Cat3, it also is fast and is considered for a 100-base T network. Cat 3 was known to provide 16 MHz speed only, making it a 10 base T. Cat5, on the other hand, allows users to enjoy a maximum speed of 100MHz.
Affordability and speed are but two of the reasons why it is widely used. While it may have certain limitations compared to newer cables, it can still give you advantages in using it for your networking needs. However, you must also be aware of its disadvantages. Knowing these two areas in using Cat5 cables for your networking will help you maintain your network.
Solid and Stranded
A Cat5 presents versatility. It has two forms: the solid and the stranded. The solid Cat5 cable is stiff and is considered for connecting wall sockets with a central panel. It is most commonly used also for office building networking. The stranded Cat5 is more flexible. It is used for computer networking and telephone wirings. It is more pliable and is best used for shorter distance networking.
If you are to look for cheaper data cables, the Cat5 is a good answer. Cat3, as stated earlier, is cheaper but handles only up to 16MHz speed. This means smaller data transfers. The Cat5 does a better job with a 100MHz speed. However, it still has limitations.
While the Cat5 does provide a better performance than Cat3, it still limited or best suited for home networking. It also has limitations in data transfers as it can only handle 100 megabits per second. You cannot use this for larger corporate networks or modern television transfers since those areas transfer larger data.
Sensitivity to Interference
One of the limitations of using Cat5 Cable is its sensitivity to interference.
Interference is electrostatic disturbances from handheld devices and other objects such as phones, microwaves, television signals and so on. It can also be caused by wireless computers.
The Cat5’s sensitivity to interferences reduces its effectiveness in transferring data. It reduces its speed and causes serious problems with data transfers and signal strength.
Testing the Cat5
With the advantages and disadvantages of the Cat5 cable in networking, using it requires testing. The Cat5 also sets testing standard to see the maximum allowable levels of attenuation, the crosstalk, and the delay skews.
Testing the Cat5 has two types: wire mapping and the standard based testing. These two can be performed using data cabling.
The wire mapping shows if the cables are properly terminated. Each end of the cable is terminated with an RJ-45. Crimping is the process of connecting the RJ-45 to the end of the Cat5; however, before doing this, the wire’s colors must be in proper location within the RJ-45 terminal.
In standard based testing, the cable should meet the minimum standards of the Cat5 certification. When the cable is verified, the person testing it compares readings based from the standard. They will then give the report showing the measurement obtained after testing it.
At present, there are newer cables that perform better than Cat5 cable. One such cable is the Cat6. It provides faster connection and can be connected the same way as using a Cat5. However, this is more expensive.
The tradition of exchanging baseball trading pins has been practiced by a lot of people from every age. Collecting these baseball pins is a pleasing hobby for a lot of baseball fans and for the ordinary folks who are fond of accumulating sport mementos.
There are different types and shapes of baseball trading pins that collectors seek out from various teams and trading events. Some even go online to look for collectors or shops who are selling priced baseball pins. The trick with baseball pins is that the bigger the trading pin is, the more valuable it comes. Some trading pin owners go as far as giving a number of pins from their collection to another owner just to accumulate the bigger baseball pin. This trading practice is what gives birth to a lot of bond and friendship between people who share the same appetite for collecting trading pins.
There are different versions of stories on how baseball trading pins started. Here are some of its the recorded histories.
Baseball Buttons from the Bastian Brothers
In 1920s New York, a bakery called Bastian Brothers started selling bread loaves that came with a baseball pin-back buttons for their customers. The baseball pin-back buttons featured baseball players of that time and they were distributed to regulars who were also baseball fans. Each set of bread came with a baseball pin that bore the face of different hometown baseball heroes. These rare and treasured pins, which eventually progressed in 1922 to 1933, have been accumulated by avid baseball pin collectors from different parts of the world.
Since the Bastian Brothers bakery started handing out these souvenirs, the collection of trading pins became popular. People began to wear these pins to show love and support to their chosen teams.
The 1980 Winter Olympics
Another famed story of the origin of baseball pins goes back to the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York. This was believed to be the time when trading of pins became rampant among baseball watchers and pin collectors. To show their support for the teams, spectators wore baseball pins and started meeting fellow pin collectors in the event.
In 1988, Coke started its own Official Olympic Pin Trading Center at the Calgary Games. The event attracted more than 17,000 visitors a day all vying to accumulate pins and meet other pin collectors. The same craze happened in 1992 at Coke’s trading center in Barcelona, Spain. The event drew more than 500,000 visitors from different countries. The different designs, rareness, and historical value of the trading pins increased its appeal to pin collectors.
Even the Walt Disney Company made its own trading pin and executed pin trading events at their theme parks. This event lured pin collectors, guests, and even Disney employees to trade pins with each other.
As youth sports have become popularized over the years, the tradition of trading pins also became widespread. There are some tournaments and small leagues which require their teams to carry baseball trading pins with them.
The trading process of these pins is always on the one-is-to-one ratio. However, older trading pins always hold more value and can demand higher numbers of pin depending on the trader. In most cases, trading pins are also valued from $0.5 to $100. The prices of these pins depend on their age, the materials, and their sizes.
For an ardent collector of trading pins, prices don’t matter because the important things are the pin’s sentimental value, and the story behind it. Trading pins also symbolize camaraderie and friendship between different sports event. It’s the place where people can socialize and find a niche of collectors who share the same love and passion as them.
A printed circuit board may be one of the most fundamental parts of an electronic machine. This card is important as it keeps everything going. A simple printed circuit board actually keeps an electronic equipment or machine going by manufacturing the electricity on it. PCB is basically a card or a board with wires and components that come in different colors. Circuit board may look so complex on the first glance, but the truth is, anyone can create their own – even those who have little knowledge about electronics and all the terminologies used.
Here is a brief explanation of steps on how a circuit board may be made:
First, there is the design. Talking about the design of the printed circuit board, it is not actually for the aesthetic feels. The circuit boards have their own respective designs depending on the needed formation and connection of the components and the wires. One has to design the circuit board first before manufacturing it. How do they do it? First, engineers develop only prototypes of the boards and once the circuit is established, they can already start doing the board pattern. Most of the time, the design created by the engineer for the needed printed circuit board is sent to the factory where all the components and the wires are connected and put together in one board.
Second is the drilling part. The drilling machine plays a big part in creating the circuit boards because the first part of the manufacturing process starts when the technician puts a batch of raw PC boards into it. Then, what does the drilling machine do to the PC boards? In this process, all the boards, which are made of the glass-epoxy type with a copper foil on both sides, are being marked with all the data needed on the board. For example, the company name, the part designation and all the important information needed. All these data are silk-screened on the surface of the board in color white. Also, the drilling machine bores holes on the areas in which the wires and the components will be added.
Third, patterning. Before putting anything else on the board, the circuit pattern is being printed on the copper side of the board. It may be done photographically or with the use of silk-screening. This part is called the “resist” because the entire pattern of the soon to be circuit board is actually printed using a chemically resistant ink.
Fourth, the board is being etched. In etching, the board is being dipped in a corrosive solution that would dissolve the exposed copper. With this, the entire needed pattern for the circuit board on the copper side, which is technically printed using the resist, will remain. In etching, all the needed circuit board parts remain and they are now called as the circuit board traces. After this procedure, the resist may already be washed off and the board would turn out to be a shiny clean copper.
Fifth is loading in which the parts are already placed on the board. This process is done in different ways depending on the manufacturer. In big companies, they do it with a machine while on small companies, everything is laid manually.
Sixth, the board is then soldered. A solder paste, with the help of a stencil, coats all the component side of the board. The board then will run on an oven. With this, the solder paste will be molten and all the component parts will be fixed.
Lastly, the board goes under inspection to make sure that it works the way it needs to be. This process is done by connecting the printed circuit board to a test fixture. Boards which have flaws are discarded.
Fire safes also known as fireproof safes, composite safes or fire liner safes are freestanding safes designed to protect the valuables inside from fire for a certain amount of time only. Fire safes greatly increase the likelihood of valuable documents surviving fire. The only drawback is that almost 90% of fire safes provide little to no burglary protection and requires professional installation. Here are some tips to ensure that you are buying the best fireproof safe manufacturers can offer.
First, most fireproof safes are intended to protect your valuables from fire, but not from burglaries. A true UL rated composite safe is made of two thin skins of sheet metal that house a water retaining medium in between them. The heated water becomes steam, protecting the valuables inside from extreme heat. The heat also causes expansion around the door jamb forming a solid seal to protect what is inside. This is indeed a wonderful construction to protect against fire, but this does nothing in terms of protecting what is inside against thieves. The walls protecting the safe are purposely thin and provide no direct resistance against attacks from the outside.
Some manufactures resort to reinforcing their walls, making them thicker compared to before. The problem is, fireproof safes are designed to protect from fire and their core design can never make for a good burglary proof safe. Attempting to alter this by making the walls thicker not only does nothing to protect from thieves, but also lessens the ability of the safe to protect from fires. If you want burglary protection, never consider fireboard of drywall based fire safes as they consistently fail in the burglary protection department.
Second, consider how the fireproof safes are constructed: insulation/fireboard, reinforced fireboard, composite and composite fire cladded. Fireboard based safes are cheap to manufacture and ship, thus they are extremely popular among safe manufacturers. They can be sold cheaply or manufacturers can add a huge mark up for more income. A composite fire cladded safe would be the best choice. Safes like these are heavier, hard to install and never cheap. But definitely they perform their function well and protect your valuables from any harm, be it fire, water or stress.
Third, fireproof safes should have a solid steel door, and walls with substantial thickness. This base level of steel protection ensures that your safe wouldn’t be open within minutes. Choose a safe that have at least a minimum of ½ thick solid steel doors and ¼ thick solid steel bodies. Be on the lookout for cheap attempts to up sell a cheaply made safe for the price of a good one. Check if the safe manufacturer or reseller states the material of your safe. It should say solid steel or should list down the “composites" for their wall or door material as this can be anything from sheet metal wrapped around wood to sheet metal and drywall.
Fourth, weight is not everything. Although it is initially what you could check in buying fireproof safes this should not be your basis alone. To find the amount of solid steel used in making the safe, know the actual steel thickness for both the door and walls.
Finally, never buy a safe that is slow to open or access. You most likely would not use this safe thus it will just be a waste of money. The best lock to use for your safe would be an electronic one. This type of lock is easy to access and can be quickly installed even without the aid of a locksmith. Electronic locks have the option to reset the combination whenever you feel like your security is compromised.
When looking for research compounds the first thing that you must be sure about is their quality. Low quality compounds can jeopardize your experiment. MK-2866 is a common SARM that has been used widely and is available in a number of websites online. However, you must follow the steps mentioned below to ensure you buy mk-2866 which is of high quality.
To begin with, you must check whether the product has been tested thoroughly before being released to the market. The manufacturer will only release the research chemical after it has proved to be 99.99% pure. Regardless of the use of this research chemical, purity must never be overlooked. There are various ways you can find out if indeed the manufacturer sells pure research chemicals.
Start by going through some reviews online about the manufacturer. Find out what other clients have to say about the sale of the compound. There are a number of reviews which speak about research chemicals online. You can get engaged in one of them just to get some extra details before you buy MK-2866. This will help you to understand the sale of this product online.
Next, look for companies which offer 100% guarantee. Most manufacturers who will give their customer a full money back guarantee are usually confident of the quality of their research chemicals. They know that their products have a high level of purity which is why all their customers must be satisfied after purchasing mk-2866.
You should also consider the method of delivery offered by the company. You should buy MK-2866 and get it shipped to wherever you are without any inconvenience. In fact, when you are reading the reviews, make sure you gather some information regarding the delivery options offered by different suppliers. You can get free delivery if you buy your products within certain regions so you have to check on this before making the purchase.
Most importantly, consider the company’s reputation and how many years it has been providing research chemicals for sale. The best manufacturer will offer a variety of SARMs for sale so that you can buy all your research chemicals from one source. This way, you can enjoy great discounts for making bulk orders. As soon as you identify a reliable manufacturer, get to know whether it is licensed to sell research chemicals before you buy MK-2866. The best manufacturer will also have a couple of rules which must be followed by all clients like age restrictions.